Children with special needs are children who require special strategy during their development. They have more different aspect than others, either the psychological, social, cognitive, or physical aspect. Thus, they need different way on fulfilling the purpose and their education potential. The various categories of special needs children impacts on the establishment of various school models which the education system is matched with their needs. These models would help uphold their needs. Segregation, integration, and inclusion are school models which are specifically designed for them.
The essence of segregation school is a school which the education system is separated with the regular one. The curriculum applied is different at all. This school really pays attention for the needs in each kind of disabilities, SLB A for vision disability and SLB B for auditory disability, for instance. This school provides the required equipments, limited number of students which is not more than ten students, and the supporting environment. Yet, this school may cause the limited space for the children since they only associate with the same disability. Thus, they are inclined to be alienated from the wider society. This may impact their social intercourse development in the society.
Integration school has a concept to give an opportunity for special needs children to be in the same regular school with the normal ones so that they could interact in the integrated education environment. The implementation is put them into who have passed the placement test to be in the same class, to be in the separated class but in the same school building, or to integrate them in some agenda. Those who are in this school have bigger chance to associate in the wider environment than those in segregation school. Yet, they have to take the placement test to examine their ability whether they can really be released or they still need to be accompanied by special teacher in the class.
The last is inclusion school. This school totally integrates special needs children with normal children. In a glance, this school is rather similar to integration school. The difference is special needs children are fully given a chance to be in the same class with the normal ones. They follow the same curriculum, including the 9 years of compulsory study. The thing is the school does not provide special equipments to uphold special needs children as they are treated equally. Those who could be in this school are those whose the intelligence level is higher than those of the kind.
From these three special school models, inclusion school provides the biggest chance amongst them for special needs children to socialize wider. Yet, on the fulfillment of special curriculum and equipments needed, segregation school is the most appropriate choice since this kind of school is indeed particularly designed for special needs children. Whatever the decision is, these models could help uphold their needs; cognitive, psychological, and social aspect. Besides, these could also help the parents consider more to prepare the proper education for their children.
Yogyakarta, April 2013
Source: various references